Some scholars have studied the pregnant women with hepatitis B virus and found that the HBsAg(+) of pregnant women with hepatitis B surface antigen is three times higher than that of HBsAg(-). After correcting the related confounding factors, it is proved once again that HBsAg carriers are the onset of gestational diabetes. High risk factors. Studies have found that there are also HBV-DNA or HBsAg in pancreatic tissue. The insulin resistance index of patients with severe hepatitis B virus infection is higher than that of normal people, indicating that HBV infection of the pancreas causes damage to the secretory cells of the pancreas, decreased insulin secretion, increased blood sugar, and increased insulin resistance, which in turn leads to the loss of islet β-cells’ ability to regulate blood sugar. Increase the risk of gestational diabetes.
7, hepatitis B virus carriers
A number of studies have found that the incidence of late pregnancy diabetes in pregnant women with Hb>130g / L before 14 weeks of pregnancy is higher, and Hb is an independent risk factor for diabetes in the third trimester of pregnancy. Studies have shown that serum iron levels are associated with type 2 diabetes. The increase in Hb levels is due to elevated levels of iron ions, which can affect insulin synthesis, secretion, increase lipid oxidation, and increase liver gluconeogenesis by reducing muscle glucose utilization, resulting in elevated blood glucose.
6, higher hemoglobin (Hb)
Many studies at home and abroad have found that fasting blood glucose in early pregnancy is significantly associated with the development of gestational diabetes. Epidemiological studies have shown that fasting blood glucose in early pregnancy is an independent risk factor for gestational diabetes, the incidence of gestational diabetes when fasting blood glucose <4.4mmol / L, 4.4 ~ 5.1 mmol / L, > 5.1mmol / L in early pregnancy They were 11.1%, 24.9%, and 42.9%, respectively. Early blood glucose screening during early pregnancy is beneficial to reduce the incidence of complications in pregnant women and perinatal gestational diabetes . Fasting blood glucose in early pregnancy is not suitable as an early diagnostic indicator for gestational diabetes, but it can be used as a predictor of gestational diabetes in the third trimester of pregnancy.
5, high fasting blood glucose in early pregnancy
Aged pregnant woman refers to the aged ≥35 years old pregnant women , senior citizens are risk factors for gestational diabetes has been confirmed by clinical studies. Domestic studies have found that the risk of gestational diabetes in a 35-year-old pregnant woman is more than twice that of a 25-year-old pregnant woman . The cause of gestational diabetes in elderly patients has not been fully elucidated. More reasons are that with the increase of age, the insulin receptor and insulin affinity of pregnant women decrease, which may be related to pancreatic ischemia caused by pancreatic arteriosclerosis. Therefore, the baby is still good early, don’t drag over 35 years old. For elderly women, they should check the full education during pregnancy, adjust the bad lifestyle, and increase the number of examinations.
4, senior age
Pregnant women who are scheduled for regular checkups must know that the most frequent sentence that an obstetrician asks at each visit is “how much weight has increased in the last week”, if your answer is 3 kg, 4 kg, 5 kg… I will definitely see the doctor frown. The reason why the doctor will worry is because the weight gain of the pregnant woman within 1 week is too large, on the one hand, it will increase the risk of the fetus, and it will be more difficult to get pregnant. On the other hand, the weight gain during pregnancy will increase too much. The risk of gestational diabetes in pregnant women . The main reason is that the excessive increase of body mass during pregnancy can cause early insulin resistance, leading to the decompensated state of islet β cells, and the body may develop gestational diabetes due to the inability to adapt to the increasing insulin demand during pregnancy. Therefore, for a single-born pregnant woman , the weekly weight gain should be controlled within 0.5kg (1 kg).
3. Weight gain during pregnancy
Gestational diabetes has maternal heredity. The study found maternal relatives of a family history of diabetes in pregnant women the risk of gestational diabetes is no family history of diabetes occurs in pregnant women 3 times more. 31.88% of women with abnormal glucose metabolism during pregnancy had a family history of diabetes, and the maternal genetic predisposition was significantly greater than that of the paternal line when the two-generation maternal and two-generation paternal lines suffered from diabetes. Therefore, pregnant women with a family history of diabetes should be considered as a high-risk group of gestational diabetes. Pregnant women should be screened for blood glucose as soon as possible, and if necessary, multiple screenings. Strive for early detection, early diagnosis, early treatment, strengthening education, reasonable diet, and appropriate exercise to reduce the harm of pregnancy-induced diabetes to mother and child.
2, family history of diabetes
The study found that the incidence of gestational diabetes in obese people was 2 to 10 times higher than that of normal women. Mainly because as the pregnancy progresses, the insulin resistance hormone secreted by the placenta gradually increases, so that insulin resistance during pregnancy is gradually increased, impaired glucose tolerance, and cytokines synthesized and secreted by adipose tissue play a decisive role in insulin resistance, obesity Because women have more adipose tissue, they also secrete more insulin-resistant substances in their bodies than normal people, so that islet β cells can not fully regulate blood sugar and increase the risk of gestational diabetes.
1, overweight and obesity before pregnancy
The occurrence of GDM not only affects the mother, but also has a short-term and long-term impact on the fetus and infants. The effects of GDM on the mother include increased incidence of hypertensive gestational hypertension, cesarean section and delivery of large children, long-term effects including a 7-fold increased risk of postpartum type 2 diabetes, hypoglycemia in newborns after childbirth and future obesity The risk of impaired glucose tolerance and even death is higher than that of pregnant women with normal blood glucose during the same period .
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is an abnormal glucose tolerance that occurs during the first trimester of pregnancy and is the most common metabolic abnormality during pregnancy. Pregnant mothers are normal and have no diabetes. Why do they have gestational diabetes when they are pregnant? Here are 10 people who are susceptible to gestational diabetes.